"Courtney-Leigh Kelly's Study Guide"

Friday, November 12, 2004

Smart Mobs & Flash Mobs

Smart Mobs and Flash Mobs are part of the new technology that helps temporary organizations form but can also help the organizations that are already established become more sufficient. Smart mobs are coordinated through the use of mobile devices such as cell phones, blackberries, PDA's, etc. as well as the internet with people who are usually intelligent. Smart mobs are considered to be the peaceful protests that don't usually get way out of hand.

Flash mobs are usually considered to be a large group people who show up at a certain place, than so something unusual like yelling a word, and than leaving quickly. These flash mobs are coordinated also through the internet, cell phones, blackberries, PDA's, and other mobile devices. The first Flash mob was used in NYC last year but it didn't really get to do anything because the police were tipped off and were at the store before the mob could do anything. Sarah makes a great point by using what her boyfriend witnessed, about how the mob used "The Matrix" as some sort of communication.

Besides helping temporary organizations these two technologies definitely help out the "traditional organizations" by becoming much more sufficient in communicating between the people in the company as well as the different departments in the company. These two technologies help because by using more of the internet, and other mobile devices the people in the organizations can communicate even more. By using cell phones, blackberries, and PDA's those who are out of the office can still know what is going on when they are not there. This helps because if someone needs the answer to a question they don't need to wait around all day waiting for someone to show up and give them the answer. Like Danielle said it increases the Productivity. They also help within a project that is being worked on by a group of people. They are able to communicate and than go off on whatever business they have to tend to.

Smart mobs and Flash mobs are a great way for organizations to communicate and grow together without having to wait.

Saturday, November 06, 2004

"Weblogs, Aggregators, and Wikis in the Org"

Most of the time people think that email is the best way to get information around an organization but it's not. With email, there can be some major problems like the email being sent to the wrong person, or not being sent at all, or having to deal with spam. Most of the time people don't check their email. Meghan makes a great point by saying that the spam is "noise" which doesn't allow the receiver to receive the important message trying to be sent. An example would be our Marymount email accounts. Everytime I go to check my email, I always find mass emails. Weblogs, aggregators, and wikis can be very helpful in any organization.

First let's deal with weblogs. Weblogs are changing the way information is shared in organizations by allowing people within the company to post a question that the whole comapny can see and answer it. That also helps the others in the company who have the same question because they will be able to see the blog and get their answer. Weblogs also help because usually one person will be sent the same question over and over through email by different employees but with the help of blogs they will be able to post the answer for everyone in the company. Another way weblogs are changing how information is shared in the organization is allowing the company to learn about you by viewing your profile and by seeing the other blogs in your links list. Lauren makes a great point by saying that in an organization, weblogs give it "a way to show a personal side to it's team members. An example weblogs can be used for is marketing in the company. Danielle makes a great point about marketing; she said that it can be used for "attracting new customers, knowledge management, and team communication."

Aggregators are changing the way information is shared in organizations by allowing whoever is viewing to see who has made a recent post. This allows someone who is waiting for an answer to see who has read the question and has made a post with the answer to the question. I feel that aggregators are helpful when writing our blogs for class which is like an organization because with the aggregator I'm able to see who is the class has made the most recent post in order to see if I'm going to use that person's post as a link in my post. Aggregators help save time whem trying to get something important done.

Wikis are changing the way information is shared in organizations because they "are simple web application based hyper-texted page operators." Wikis in Hawaiian mean "Quick." They are sort of like blogs but they're also different than blogs. They are different because wikis don't post blogs automatically and it allows different people to co-author the post made. Each page is stored in the archive; everything that is written once is automatically saved. In organizations wikis allow people to build collective knowledge together like customer service. Wikis take the vital information and arrange it in an important manner.

Saturday, October 30, 2004

"Command and Control"

After reading, Barry Lynn's "Unmade in America:the true cost of a global assembly line," I learned that when it comes to manufacturing, there are definite problems in the "command and control "model that deals with outsourcing. Many people think that outsourcing is a great idea but they don't necessarily think about what problems may occur. What they don't know about the "command and control" model involving outsourcing is that companies maybe located in the United States but those companies depend on different parts from different companies in other countries. For example a company can be located in the U.S. but it could be assembled in Taiwan , tested in the Philippines, have a program designed in China, and so on.
The problems that arise in the command and control model is when something devastating happens to one part all the other parts that are involved will get hit as well. Take for example when the U.S. was attacked on September 11, 2001, all the ports were closed, planes weren't allowed to fly over the U.S., which meant all the products that companies in the U.S needed from other countries weren't allowed in. In turn by not allowing those products in the companies supplying them to us were losing money. The outsourcing labor and the global assembly line are heavily affected when something goes wrong.
Sarah makes a great point by stating that because manufacturers have no inventory and basically have to depend on other countries, if something were to happen than there wouldn't be enoungh commodities to go around. Rosalyn also makes a great point by talking about "many incidents has happen in the past few years that gave more reasons as to why it is not good to depend only on the suppliers."
In conclusion, I believe that the "command and control" model may be a good way to get supplies from other countries but if something devestating happens again, we might not be able keep the model going.

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Social Network Analysis

Social Network Analysis is considered to be the measuring of flows that exist between groups, computers, people, organizations, etc. Within the Social Network Analysis there are nodes and links. The nodes are the people, groups, organizations while the links have the ability to show the relationship between the different nodes. In a Social Network Analysis, human relationships are analyzed through mathematical analysis and visual analysis. This network call also be refered to as Organizational Network Analysis when used in organizations. In order to understand what is going on in a network and with those invloved, you have to evaluate it by measuring the location of the network, this is done in the nodes. By performing all these measures, you are now able to find out what is important in the nodes of a network. Degrees is what the researchers "measure network activity for a node." This means they are looking for "the number of direct connevtions a node has."

Betweenness in a network, deals with a person who is in between. The person in between is usually considered to be a "broker." Without the "Broker" there wouldn't be any information being passed from someone at the bottom to someone on the top. A node that is considered to have "high betweenness" can have a powerful influence over the flows or relationships within the network. Closeness in a network is not having connections to the top but being close and having connections to everyone else. Boundary Spanners in a network are innovators. They are considered innovators because they have the access to what is going on in a network. For example they get to view the ideas or information that is passing through. Boundary Spanners also are able to put together the "different ideas and knowledge, found in various places, into new products and services."

Peripheral Players in a network are considered to be not very important in the network. They are usually connected to unmapped networks. Network Centralization involves being able to view the location of an individual in a network. Having a very centralized network can be a problem because if a node was removed, the network will now start to turn into sub-networks that are unconnected. A network that is not very centralized doesn't have any single points that can fail. Yeah, many nodes and links can fail but it still allows all the rest of the nodes and links to reach others through "other network paths."

Social network analysis is important in organizations in order to have communication with the different parts of the hierarchy. I agree with Danielle when she said that SNA is an important part of an organization when it comes to communication because it can "increase the success of communication, relationships, and the productivity of an organization." Rosalyn makes a good point by saying SNA is assisting an oganization in communicating with their employees and to improve their companies. If we didn't have it than all the communication would be chaotic.

Thursday, October 14, 2004

"Meaning is not in words or people, but in the network

"Meaning is not in words or in people, but in the network." Before discussing this statement in class I never really gave thought into the meaning coming from the network rather than the words or people. According to Shannon and Weaver, "source" is all things possible that can be constructed plus the statistical probability of how and when they are uses. Sources always change. According to Jakobson, the "source" is called the "code," which is "composed of various subcodes." "Subcodes" can be marked by "fluctuations" or "changes. "Subcodes" can be a number of things like dialects or text messages. Melissa makes a great point by saying that the human language is made up of "Codes" and "Subcodes" that are pieced together that makes nonverbal or verbal communication possible. According to Saussure's theory of "Semiotics the study of signs," he gave us a way to have symbols and their meanings become linked together. He came up with the "signifier" which is the the "sound image" and the "signified" which is the "symbol" that can be an object, gesture, spoken, etc.

The brain is different than the source. Yeah, most people usually think the brain is the source; it's not. The brain is an "open spread sheet that is filled in when learned at a young age." Most of the knowledge people learn is when they are young. Knowledge learned is kept with the person throughout their lifetime as opposed to the source which changes in probability. The brain has to infer the source from talking with people.

Which brings me to "meaning is not in words or people, but in the network." After going back and reading about subcodes, I realized that subcodes are what the network is made up of. Danielle makes a good point about subcodes by saying that people with different subcodes can still communicate with others. Not only are networks made up of subcodes they are also made of signs. There is no way a person can understand a sign unless they know the whole "content" of the sign. And according to Derrida, a sign can't be understood unless the person knows how the sign differentiates itself from other signs.

Friday, October 08, 2004

Shannon & Weaver II Response

Shannon & Weaver's Model of Communication needed to be expanded in order to account for Semantics. Ferdinand de Saussure and Roman Jakobson both studied linguistics. Jakobson said that instead of using the word "source" that the word "code" should be used. Jakobson came up with after making many ovservations that examining a code in terms of communication that there isn't just one code but a lot of codes. He also suggests that "subcodes" are also among the codes.

Jakobson said that the language is always changing. I agree with this because language is always changing. For example, now a days we don't speak the way people did 200 years ago. Jakobson wants a "model of language" that isn't related to the person speaking or to the person hearing it. Because of the subcodes interweaving with each other, this definitely made an improvement when it comes down to Shannon & Weaver's "source." Saussure came up with the idea of the signified/signifier equals the sign. The Signified was the concet/definition the signifier refers to. The Signifier was the particular word attached to a concept. Saussure also intorduced the idea of "semiotics." Semiotics is the explanation of how the messages sent carry meanings.

With Jakobson using codes and Saussure using signs; their ideas definitely helped Shannon and Weaver's model interms of Human Communication. Just like Melissa said, both of their ideas do fill-in the missing pieces inorder for human communication to be possible. With Jakobson's and Saussure's ideas, we now can text message and instant message people without having to type the whole work out. Like Danielle points out in her post we never really do realize how much misunderstanding occurs in human communication. I can relate to this because sometimes when I send my sister a sign that seemed to be signified to me, she totally misinterprets what the meanings was really supposed to be.

Monday, October 04, 2004

"Shannon and Weaver Response"

Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication changed the way messages were transmitted through communication. Shannon and Weaver introduced their idea in 1949. Yeah, in 1949 we already had moarse Code, but with Shannon and Weaver's idea people would be able to communicate on a better level. Their model of communication really dealt with mathematics, hence the name it was given the mathematical model of communication. Shannon and Weaver figured out that they would be able to send an electric signal through a receiver. They also came up with the idea that the wave itself can be turned into 1's and o's and back into the wave. Shannon and Weaver found out that using the fewest number of symbols and codes was easier to send a message. The code they used was the Bianary Code. Even though digital communication was already around with the moarse code, Shannon and Weaver made digital communication even better. The model itself entails a source, message, transmitter, signal, noise, received signal, receiver, and destination. The source is the messages, the message is what is being sent, the transmitter is what sends the message, the signal is what comes off the message, the noise is what can sometimes mess up the message that is being sent, the received signal is the message after it goes through the noise; it sometimes can be the original message but than again going through the noise can mess up the original message, the receiver gets the message, and the destination is where the message was heading. The redundancy in a message is when it repeats after an error occurs. The redundancy level in the English Language is 50%. Often, messages are misunderstood by the person receiving them because the codes or symbols have been affected by noise.

Although the model was a great help for sending digital signals, there are still some changes that have to be made. The model doesn't give a definition of a sign, it is conceived as being a one way communication system, there is no feedback, and it gives the theory of a code but it doesn't explain how it works in everyday human communication. Communication is apart of everyday life in human interaction. Like Melissa said, "communication never stops." She is right communication never stops; she also talked about how the model looked like telephone wires. No matter what I am doing; I am always communicating. Just like Melissa, Suzanne talked about how the model is like a telephone transmitting one message from one person to another. I agree with both Melissa and Suzanne on how the model is like a telephone. Shannon and Weaver made it possible for all the digital signals that we now use to get transmitted from one to another.
 
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